b) The Enlightenment led to the Industrial Revolution. The Enlightenment was a new sprawling intellectual movement throughout Europe. It dedicated itself to reason and reacted against religion. Practical insights led to new and more efficient ways to produce goods. The age of mass production began.
c) Industrialization made landowners throw peasants off their land to grow crops for profit with help from machines. Ordinary people moved to the cities and worked in poorly paid factories with a bad working environment.
d) Britain maintained its Pax Britannica by avoiding revolutions and to promote the principles of individual freedom and natural rights. They followed a balance-of-power foreign policy where they supported the weaker power to maintain peace.
e+) Magna Carta limited the monarch's power, ending the age where the monarch could do as he/she pleased and no one could stop them. The Civil War sent a clear message that a monarch could not rule alone, but through the grace of his/her subjects. It led to the attempt of balance between the Parliament and the monarchy. The Glorious Revolution resulted in The House of Stuarts having enough Stuarts to pass the Act of Settlement. This decided that every monarch from that day on had to Protestant, and ended the religious and political conflicts. The age of constitutional monarchy began, where the monarch had very little power.